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Tempos Verbais

Verb Tenses 1- Going to

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‘Be going to’ seguido do infinitivo é a forma verbal que expressa a intenção do sujeito de fazer algo no futuro. Normalmente mostra que alguma pre usually points out that some preparation for the action has been made previously.

Going to

‘Be going to’ followed by an infinitive is the verb form that expresses the subject’s intention to do something in the future. It usually points out that some preparation for the action has been made previously.

Form
Affirmative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
am (‘m)
is (‘s)
are (‘re)
going to V
Negative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
am not (‘m not)
is not (isn’t)
are not (aren’t)
going to V
Questions
am
is
are
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
going to? V
Uses
There are three basic uses of the “going to” – future. We use it:
.to talk about planned actions where the decision has been made before speaking.
.to express intentions. We often use “going to” rather than “will” in informal style.
.to make a prediction where there is some evidence now.

Verb Tenses 2 – Past continuous

Past continuous descreve uma ação que vinha acontecendo e que na ocasião ainda não havia terminado. As expressões such as, while e as normalmente aparecem no uso desse tempo verbal.

Past Continuous

The Past Continuous describes an action that was already happening at a time in the past and was not finished at that time. It is often used with time expressions such aswhileandas.

Form
Affirmative
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
was
were
V – ing
Negative
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
was not (wasn’t)
were not (weren’t)
V – ing
Questions
was
were
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
V – ing?
Uses
The Past Continuous is used:

.to talk about an action which was in progress at a particular time in the past.

.to talk about two incomplete actions that were happening simultaneously.

.together with the Simple Past. In this case, the Past Continuous refers to the longer background action, and the Simple Past to the shorter action that happened in the middle of the longer one or interrupted it.

At the restaurant

These people were making a film. It was calledFunny Stories. This was a scene from the film. It was the fourth time they had filmed it. The director was going to shout ‘cut’ in a second. Everybody was having dinner at a restaurant. A young couple were deciding what to order.

She was looking at the menu and he was talking to her. A fair waitress was serving some sandwiches and a soft drink to a young boy who was looking at his watch. A waiter was clearing a table and another waitress was setting another table. An old man was paying his bill at the cashier’s.

A young girl was having a salad and reading a newspaper. Another couple were having dinner. The man was drinking a beer and the lady was having a soup. Suddenly, she started to laugh. The director shouted ‘cut’ at exactly this point. He couldn’t understand what had happened. He asked the lady why she was laughing and she answered there was a fly in the soup. They all stopped and had a rest.

Verb Tenses 3 – Past Perfect Continuous

The Past Perfect Continuous is used to emphasize the duration of a continuous action that happened before another one in the past.

Form
Affirmative
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
had (‘d) been V – ing
Negative
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
had not (hadn’t) been V – ing
Questions
had I / he / she / it
we / you / they
been V – ing?

Uses
The Past Perfect Continuous is used:

.to talk about an action which was in progress before another one in the past, and which was completed before then.

.with adjuncts of frequency and duration such asalways,often,since then,all day, etc., to specify when the action began.

.instead of Past Perfect Simple to refer to a repeated action.

.with the verbwantand sometimes withwish, although they are not used in other continuous tenses.

A new power saw

Mark Stevens wanted to give her daughter a doll’s house for her birthday, but he wanted to build it himself. It was now eight in the evening and he was tired because he had been working at the shop since eight in the morning. But he didn’t have any other free time to do it.

He was delighted with his new power saw. He had been wanting one for a long time. He had everything ready to start working: the tool-box, the electric drill, the saw, the sandpaper, the hand drill and the pieces of wood. When he was going to plug his new power saw, he noticed someone had already used it.

He plugged it, but it didn’t work. «Had anyone been using my new power saw while I was working?», he asked himself. «I hadn’t been saving so much time to get a broken power saw.» He entered his house and after talking to his family he discovered his son had been repairing the dog’s house.

Verb Tenses 4 – Past perfect simple

Quando nos referimos sobre duas ações que ocorreram no passado, usamos past perfect para falar da que aconteceu primeiro e simple past para falar da que aconteceu depois.

Past Perfect Simple

When we talk about two actions in the past, we refer to the one that happened first by using the Past Perfect tense while the later action is expressed in the Simple Past.

Form
Affirmative
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
had (‘d) Past participle
Negative
I / he / she / it
we / you / they
had not (hadn’t) Past participle
Questions
had I / he / she / it
we / you / they
Past participle?
  • Regular verbs form their Past Participle by adding-edto the verb. Irregular verbs have their own Past Participle.
Uses
We use the Past Perfect Simple:
.to talk about an event that happened before another in the past.
.withwhen, after, as soon as, by the time, already, never, ever,etc.

A car accident

Some people are explaining to a policeman what they saw a few hours ago. ‘I saw there had been an accident. One car had run into another. I had just put some money in the bank cash-dispenser when I heard a horrible noise,’ a young woman says.
‘I had come round the corner when I saw a man had hit another driver,’ a lady explains.
‘I didn’t see what happened. I was working and suddenly I heard a strange noise. When I went out, the police had already arrived,’ a post office worker points out.
‘I had just arrived at the bus stop when I saw the car accident,’ a man says.
‘My brother and I had just bought some flowers at the florist’s. We were going to take a taxi when we heard the crash. We had never seen a car accident before,’ two young boys explain.
‘I didn’t hear any strange noise. You know, I’m quite deaf. I had bought a magazine at the news-stand and I was reading it on a bench,’ an old man tells the policeman.
‘Had any of you seen the drivers before the accident?,’ the policeman asks.

Verb Tenses 5 – Present continuous

O present continuous, também chamado de present progressive, é usado para se referir a uma ação que acontece no mesmo tempo da fala.

Present Continuous

The Present Continuous, called Present Progressive as well, refers to an action that is in progress at the time of speaking.

Form
Affirmative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
am (‘m)
is (‘s)
are (‘re)
V-ing
Negative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
am not (‘m not)
is not (isn’t)
are not (aren’t)
V-ing
Questions
am
is
are
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
V-ing?
Uses
The present continuous is used to talk about:
.What is happening at the time of speaking.
.Something that is happening for a limited period of time around the Present, but not necessarily exactly at the moment of speaking.

Setting off for camp

Here I am, in the summer camp! Every year in August I come to this summer camp in Italy. This is my fifth year. It’s only a fifteen days’ camp, but I enjoy it a lot. Today is my first day and I’m adjusting my tent’s elastic strainer. Some of my friends are inflating the air mattresses and others are arranging the camping equipment according to its use. For instance, Peter is tidying up the cooking set: coffeepots, frying pans, plates, etc. John is checking the lanterns and camp stoves. And Betty is placing the shovels and other tools in the wagon tent. But, where is Betty? Is she putting everything in order or not? No, she is not placing the tools.
And, where is Patty? Isn’t she setting our backpacks and sleeping bags in order?
No, she isn’t. Patty and Betty are resting together. They’re talking about their things.
We are working a lot, but we are enjoying ourselves, too. And our monitors are helping us in everything.

Verb Tenses 6 – Present perfect continuous

O present perfect continuous enfatiza a duração de uma ação que começou no passado e ainda acontece. É comum o uso do with for ou since para dizer a quanto tempo a ação está acontecendo.

Present Perfect Continuous

The Present Perfect Continuous emphasizes the length of time of an action which began in the past and is still going on. It is often used with for or since to say how long an action has been happening.

Form
Affirmative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
have (‘ve)
has (‘s)
have (‘ve)
been V – ing
Negative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
have not (haven’t)
has not (hasn’t)
have not (haven’t)
been V – ing
Questions
have
has
have
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
Uses

The Present Perfect Continuous is used:
.to talk about an action that began in the past and continues in the present when we want to express the idea of continuity.
.to talk about actions repeated over a period of time.
.to describe a temporary situation which may still be going on or has just finished.
.when the result of an action which was going on but has finished, now is still evident.

Strange things

Jackie and Harold are spending some time together.
Jackie- Have you been working too hard, Harold? You don’t seem your usual relaxed self.
Harold- I haven’t been working too hard, but there have been some strange things going on and I’ve been closing my eyes to them.
Jackie- What do you mean?
Harold- You know I’ve been working at the science laboratory for the last two months to discover that new disease. Last week my manager sent me a new helper. His name is Mark. The first time I saw him I thought he wasn’t an honest person. I’ve been leaving all my instruments in the same place every day to know if someone touched them. You know, the magnifying glass, the microscope, the test tubes, the petri dishes, the flasks, etc. The day before yesterday I noticed someone had touched my safety glasses, and yesterday my measuring cylinder wasn’t in the same place I had left it.
Jackie- Do you think Mark has been touching your things?
Harold- I’m not sure about it. What I know is that someone has been touching them.

Present perfect simple

O Present perfect simple conecta o passado ao presente.

Present Perfect Simple

The Present Perfect Simple connects the past and the present.

Form
Affirmative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
have (‘ve)
has (‘s)
have (‘ve)
Past participle
Negative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
have not (haven’t)
has not (hasn’t)
have not (haven’t)
Past participle
Questions
have
has
have
I
he / she / it
we / you / they
Past participle?
Regular past participles end in -ed. Some participles are irregular. They don’t end in -ed.

Uses
The Present Perfect is used:

.to talk about the present result of a past action.

.to talk about an action which began in the past and which continues up to the present.

.with certain time expressions such as just, already, yet, ever, never, for…

On tour round Europe

Reporter- We have here on the line direct from Venice, Victoria Brown. As you know, she’s one of our best theatre actresses, and right now she and her company are on tour playing Macbeth. Good evening, Victoria!

Victoria- Good evening. I’m talking to you from my dressing room, because I’m on stage in fifteen minutes.

Reporter- Right, it’ll be a short interview. Have you ever been on tour before?

Victoria – I’ve been a couple of times, actually.

Reporter- Which city have you been more successful in?

Victoria- Last week we were in Budapest and we had very good criticism. We haven’t been to Paris yet, but I’m sure we’ll be a great hit there.

Reporter- Tell me about some of the theatres you’ve performed in.

Victoria- The most important thing is not the theatre, but the audience. What I really like is the sound of people clapping. I’m happy when our work is worthy of the greatest praise.

Reporter- I’m sure your tour will continue being a box-office success, and I hope you aren’t superstitious because, as you may know, today is Friday 13th.

Victoria- I have never been superstitious, and I’m looking forward to going on working with my company successfully.

Reporter- Thanks for your time and congratulations.

Verb Tenses 9 – Present tenses with a future meaning

The Present Simple and Continuous can also refer to the future, but they are used in a different way. We use the Present Simple to talk about a future, timetabled event.
The Present Continuous is used to talk about what we have already arranged to do. It is also possible to use the “going to” form, but the Present Continuous is more natural when we are referring to arrangements.

Fonte: www.escolavesper.com.br

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