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QUESTION 1 You have a hybrid Exchange Server 2016 organization. Some of the mailboxes in the research department are hosted on-premises. Other mailboxes in the research department are stored in Microsoft Office 365. You need to search the mailboxes in the research department for email messages that contain a specific keyword in the message body. What should you do? A. From the Exchange Online Exchange admin center, search the delivery reports. B. Form the on-premises Exchange center, search the delivery reports. C. From the Exchange Online Exchange admin SY0-401 exam center, create a new In-Place eDiscovery & Hold. D. From the Office 365 Compliance Center, create a new Compliance Search. E. From the on-premises Exchange admin center, create a new In-Place eDiscovery & Hold. Correct Answer: E QUESTION 2 You have an Exchange Server 2016 organization. You plan to enable Federated Sharing. You need to create a DNS record to store the Application Identifier (AppID) of the domain for the federated trust. Which type of record should you create? A. A B. CNAME C. SRV D. TXT Correct Answer: D QUESTION 3 Your company has an Exchange Server 2016 200-310 exam Organization. The organization has a four- node database availability group (DAG) that spans two data centers. Each data center is configured as a separate Active Directory site. The data centers connect to each other by using a high-speed WAN link. Each data center connects directly to the Internet and has a scoped Send connector configured. The company's public DNS zone contains one MX record. You need to ensure that if an Internet link becomes unavailable in one data center, email messages destined to external recipients can 400-101 exam be routed through the other data center. What should you do? A. Create an MX record in the internal DNS zone B. B. Clear the Scoped Send Connector check box C. Create a Receive connector in each data center. D. Clear the Proxy through Client Access server check box Correct Answer: AQUESTION 4 Your network contains a single Active Directory forest. The forest contains two sites named Site1 and Site2. You have an Exchange Server 2016 organization. The organization contains two servers in each site. You have a database availability group (DAG) that spans both sites. The file share witness is in Site1. If a power failure occurs at Site1, you plan to mount the databases in Site2. When the power is restored in Site1, you Cisco CCNP Security 300-207 exam SITCS need to prevent the databases from mounting in Site1. What should you do? A. Disable AutoReseed for the DAG. B. Implement an alternate file share witness. C. Configure Datacenter Activation Coordination (DAC) mode. D. Force a rediscovery of the EX200 exam network when the power is restored. Correct Answer: C QUESTION 5 A new company has the following: Two offices that connect to each other by using a low-latency WAN link In each office, a data center that is configured as a separate subnet Five hundred users in each office You plan to deploy Exchange Server 2016 to the network. You need to recommend which Active Directory deployment to use to support the Exchange Server 2016 deployment What is the best recommendation to achieve the goal? A. Deploy two forests that each contains one site and one site link. Deploy two domain controllers to each forest. In each forest configure one domain controller as a global catalog server B. Deploy one forest that contains one site and one site link. Deploy four domain controllers. Configure all of the domain controllers as global catalog servers. C. Deploy one forest that contains two sites and two site links. Deploy two domain controllers to each site in each site, configure one domain controller as a global catalog server D. Deploy one forest that contains two sites and one site link. Deploy two domain controllers to each site. Configure both domain controllers as global catalog servers Correct Answer: C QUESTION 6 How is the IBM Content Template Catalog delivered for installation? A. as an EXE file B. as a ZIP file of XML files C. as a Web Appli cati on Archive file D. as a Portal Application Archive file Correct Answer: D QUESTION 7 Your company has a data center. The data center contains a server that has Exchange Server 2016 and the Mailbox server role installed. Outlook 300-101 exam anywhere clients connect to the Mailbox server by using thename outlook.contoso.com. The company plans to open a second data center and to provision a database availability group (DAG) that spans both data centers. You need to ensure that Outlook Anywhere clients can connect if one of the data centers becomes unavailable. What should you add to DNS? A. one A record B. two TXT records C. two SRV records D. one MX record Correct Answer: A QUESTION 8 You have an Exchange Server 2016 EX300 exam organization. The organization contains a database availability group (DAG). You need to identify the number of transaction logs that are in replay queue. Which cmdlet should you use? A. Test-ServiceHealth B. Test-ReplicationHealth C. Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup D. Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus Correct Answer: D QUESTION 9 All users access their email by using Microsoft Outlook 2013 From Performance Monitor, you discover that the MSExchange Database\I/O Database Reads Average Latency counter displays values that are higher than normal You need to identify the impact of the high counter values on user connections in the Exchange Server organization. What are two client connections 400-051 exam that will meet performance? A. Outlook on the web B. IMAP4 clients C. mobile devices using Exchange ActiveSync D. Outlook in Cached Exchange ModeE. Outlook in Online Mode Correct Answer: CE QUESTION 10 You work for a company named Litware, Inc. that hosts all email in Exchange Online. A user named User1 sends an email message to an Pass CISCO 300-115 exam - test questions external user User 1 discovers that the email message is delayed for two hours before being delivered. The external user sends you the message header of the delayed message You need to identify which host in the message path is responsible for the delivery delay. What should you do? A. Review the contents of the protocol logs. B. Search the message tracking logs. C. Search the delivery reports 200-355 exam for the message D. Review the contents of the application log E. Input the message header to the Exchange Remote Connectivity Analyzer Correct Answer: E QUESTION 11 You have an Exchange Server 2016 organization. The organization contains three Mailbox servers. The servers are configured as shown in the following table You have distribution group named Group1. Group1 contains three members. The members are configured as shown in the following table. You discover that when User1 sends email messages to Group1, all of the messages are delivered to EX02 first. You need to identify why the email messages sent to Group1 are sent to EX02 instead. What should you identify? A. EX02 is configured as an expansion server. B. The arbitration mailbox is hosted 300-320 exam on EX02.C. Site2 has universal group membership caching enabled. D. Site2 is configured as a hub site. Correct Answer: A
Home / Biologia / Esqueleto das Aves

Esqueleto das Aves

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O esqueleto das aves é altamente adaptado para voo. É extremamente leve, mas forte o suficiente para suportar as tensões de decolar, voar e desembarque.

O número total de ossos no corpo de uma Ave é menor do que para os mamíferos ou répteis.

Ossos de aves geralmente contêm ar. Muitos ossos de aves são ocos.

Anatomia

As aves que voam têm o corpo muito leve, inclusive porque seus ossos são ocos. Em algumas partes internas os ossos possuem nervuras, como as de uma asa de avião, para torná-los mais fortes. O esqueleto de uma Águia calva, por exemplo, não pesa mais do que 300 gramas.

Alguns ossos são soldados, isto é, ligados uns aos outros, de maneira a dar uma estrutura mais compacta a ave. O osso do peito é adaptado em forma de quilha, como a de um barco, e é chamado de carena, servindo com suporte para a musculatura peitoral.

Na boca das aves não há dentes, mas um bico que é adaptado ao tipo de alimentação mais comum de cada espécie. À boca, segue-se a faringe e no esôfago é encontrada uma bolsa chamada papo. Nele o alimento vai sendo amolecido para depois avançar até o estômago químico, que solta enzimas digestivas para que se inicie o processo de digestão. Depois, o alimento passa para o estômago mecânico, chamado moela, que tem uma forte musculatura para amassar o alimento.

Seu tubo digestivo termina então na cloaca, que além de ser órgão digestivo, é também órgão reprodutivo das aves.

O esqueleto das aves é peculiar.

Os ossos são leves nas aves voadoras, sendo que os maiores apresentam cavidades pneumáticas conectadas ao sistema respiratório. Toda esta adaptação diminui o peso específico das aves, facilitando o vôo. A maioria dos ossos do crânio estão fundidos e as maxilas estão alongadas, sustentando o bico córneo. O crânio articula-se com a primeira vértebra cervical por um único côndilo occiptal, e a coluna vertebral apresenta um número de vértebras cervicais muito maior do que em qualquer outro grupo. Estas vértebras são muito flexíveis pois suas superfícies de articulação são em forma de sela (vértebras heterocélicas). O esterno na maioria das aves alarga-se e forma uma quilha aumentando a superfície para a fixação dos músculos necessários ao vôo.

O esqueleto é leve.

O crânio articula-se por um único côndilo occipital com a primeira vértebra cervical.

Extensões dos pulmões formam sacos aéreos, que penetram nos ossos das asas e nos outros ossos compactos e entre os diversos órgãos do corpo. O número de vértebras cervicais varia de 8, nas aves canoras, a 23, nos cisnes. A pelve é achatada. O esterno (exceto nas ratites) encontra-se munido de uma potente crista em forma de quilha (carena), onde se inserem os músculos das asas. Os coracoideus são muito desenvolvidos.

As clavículas, unidas pela interclavícula, formam a fúrcula ou toracal. Os dedos I a III fazem parte da asa, mas o I, ou polegar, encontra-se separado dos outros dedos e constitui a asa bastarda. O metatarso e os elementos distais do tarso formam o tarso-metatarso.

Todas as aves têm em comum características que tornam possível o vôo, mesmo as aves que já perderam a capacidade de voar (os únicos pássaros que não voam são os pingüins, avestruzes, emas, casuares e quivis).

A habilidade para o vôo está refletida nas características típicas dos pássaros:

Corpo aerodinâmico
Membros anteriores modificados em asas
Cavidades dos ossos preenchidas com ar
Ausência de mandíbulas e dentes, sendo a mastigação realizada pela moela, situada atrás do estômago
Digestão rápida, sem armazenamento de alimento
Penas leves, que são estruturas mortas e impermeáveis.

Assim, não é preciso haver vasos sanguíneos pesados para nutrí-las.

Os ossos das aves são, em sua maioria, ocos. As asas são controladas por poderosos músculos presos a quilha, uma projeção existente no osso esterno.

A evolução no sentido de um vôo poderoso deu às aves esqueletos muito diferentes dos dos outros animais.

O aspecto mais evidente numa ave voadora como o corvo é a grande quilha, projeção do esterno onde se inserem os músculos das asas. As aves não têm dentes nem têm verdadeiras caudas; as penas da cauda prendem-se no extremo da coluna vertebral – o pigóstilo.

Os membros anteriores estão totalmente adaptados ao vôo, enquanto as mandíbulas sem dentes se transformaram num leve mas forte bico que a ave pode usar para se alimentar e executar tarefas delicadas, como por exemplo “pentear” as penas.

Esqueleto das Aves
Esqueleto das Aves

1. Mandíbula inferior do bico
2. Mandíbula superior do bico
3. Narina
4. Órbita
5. Cránio resultante de ossos soldados
6. Ouvido
7. Coluna vertebral constituída por pequenos ossos chamados «vértebras»; pode flectir-se nos sítios onde as vértebras estão afastadas mas é rígida nos pontos onde elas estão soldadas
8. Úmero, osso alongado da asa que corresponde ao osso do braço humano
9. Rádio, osso da asa que corresponde a um dos ossos do antebraço humano
10. Cúbito, osso da asa que corresponde a um dos outros ossos do antebraço humano
11. Pélvis, que é um suporte para as pernas e um prolongamento sseo para a inserção dos músculos das pernas
12. Pigóstilo, extremidade da coluna vertebral onde se inserem as penas da cauda
13. Fémur, osso da coxa
14. Articulação do joelho (oculta pelas penas na ave viva)
15. Tornozelo ou falso joelho (embora possa parecer que é o joelho que se dobra para a frente, esta parte corresponde realmente ao tornozelo e não ao joelho)
16. Metatarso
17. Dedo posterior
18. Garra (na ave viva recoberta por uma bainha córnea)
19. Tíbia, osso da perna
20. Metacarpo, correspondente aos ossos do pulso humano
21. Quilha, onde se inserem os músculos das asas das aves voadoras
22. Fúrcula, osso resultante de duas clavículas unidas que ajuda a manter a articulação da asa em posição quando os músculos a puxam para baixo
23. Caracóide.

Sistema Esquelético da Ave

Esqueleto das Aves
Esqueleto das Aves

1. Crânio
2. Vértebras Cervicais
3. Vértebras Lombares
4. Ílio
5. Vértebra Caudal
6. Pigóstilo
7. Costelas e Processo Uncinado
8. Esterno e Quilha
9. Clavicula (osso da sorte)
10. Coracóide
11. Escápula
12. Úmero
13. Ulna
14. Rádio
15. Carpo
16. Carpometacarpo
17. Falanges do segundo dígito
18. Falange do terceiro dígito
19. Falange do quarto dígito
20. Fêmur
21. Tibiatarso
22. Tarsometatarso
23. Dígito 1
24. Dígito 2
25. Dígito 3
26. Dígito 4
JO – Joelho
CA – Calcanhar

Ossos

Ossos extremamente leves…

Diminuem o peso específico
Ossos maiores com cavidades pneumáticas
Conectadas com sistema respiratório.

Os principais são:

Úmero
Esterno
Vértebras
Crânio

Características

Mandíbulas alongadas sustentação do BICO
Dentes ausentes

Processo uncinadoadaptações na coluna vertebral:

Muitas vértebras cervicais e número muito variávelentre espécies
Alongamento do esterno (quilha) nas que voam

Sinsacro

Fusão de vértebras com a cintura pélvica.

Fonte: canarilalmada.com/biologia.ifsc.usp.br/br.geocities.com

 

 

 

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