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Home / Português / Classificação dos Fonemas

Classificação dos Fonemas

PUBLICIDADE

Há quatro os critérios de classificação para as vogais:

Zona de articulação

média ou central: a
anteriores ou palatais:
é, ê, i
posteriores ou velares:
ó, ô, u

Intensidade

tônicas: mais intensidade
átonas:
intensidade fraca
a vogal átona pode ser: pretônica, postônica ou subtônica / facilmente = a (subton.), i (preton.), último e (post).

Timbre

abertas – a, é, ó (em sílaba tônica ou subtônica)
fechadas
– ê, ô, i, u (em sílabas tônicas, subtônicas ou átonas)
reduzidas
– vogais átonas finais, proferidas fracamente

Papel das cavidades bucal e nasal

orais – a, é, ê, i, ó, ô, u – ressonância apenas da boca
nasais
todas as vogais nasalisadas – ressonância em parte da cavidade nasal. Índices de nasalidade: ~ e m ou n em fim de sílaba.

Observação

As vogais nasais são sempre fechadas.

As consoantes também apresentam quatro critérios de classificação

Modo de articulação

oclusivas – corrente de ar encontra na boca obstáculo total – p, b, t, d, c(=k) e q, g (=guê)
constritivas
– corrente de ar encontra obstáculo parcial na boca – f, v, s, z, x, j, l, lh, r, rr. Elas subdividem-se em: fricativas – f, v, s, z, x, j / laterais – l, lh / vibrantes – r, rr

Observação

As consoantes nasais (m, n, nh) são ponto de divergência entre gramáticos, no tocante a agrupá-las como oclusivas ou constritivas. Isso se deve ao fato de a oclusão ser apenas bucal, chegando o ar às fossas nasais onde ressoa. Para Faraco e Moura, são oclusivas. Hildebrando não as coloca em nenhum dos dois grupos.

Ponto de articulação

bilabiais – p, b, m
labiodentais
– f, v
linguodentais
– t, d, n
alveolares
– s, z, l, r
palatais
– x, j, lh, nh
velares
– c(=k), qu, g (=guê), rr

Papel das cordas vocais

surdas – sem vibração – p, t, c(=k), qu, f, s, x
sonoras – com vibração
– b, d, g, v, z, j, l, lh, m, n, nh, r (fraca), rr (forte)

Papel das cavidades bucal e nasal

nasais – m, n, nh
orais
– todas as outras

Classificação dos Fonemas – Tipos

Existem três tipos de fonemas em português:

Vogal

Semivogal

Consoante

Vogal

É o fonema produzido livremente, sem que o ar encontre, na cavidade bucal, qualquer obstáculo à sua passagem.

As vogais podem ser:

a) Orais: Quando o ar sai apenas pela boca: /a/, /e/, /i/, /u/.

b) Nasais: Quando o ar sai pela boca e pelas fossas nasais: /ã/.

c) Átonas: Pronunciadas com menor intensidade.

d) Tônicas: Pronunciadas com maior intensidade.

Classificação dos Fonemas

Semivogais

São os fonemas /i/ e /u/, quando formam sílaba com uma vogal:

Pai

são

Consoantes

São os fonemas produzidos quando a corrente de ar encontra , na cavidade bucal, obstáculos à sua passagem.

Exemplos: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /f/, /v/, /s/.

Fonemas

1 – Vogal

Fonema que sai livremente pela boca, não encontando nenhum obstáculo à pas- sagem do ar pelo aparelho fonador.

Exemplos: /a/ /ê/ /i/ /ô/ /u/ /ã/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /é/ /ó/

2 – Semivogal

Nome dado aos sons /i/ e /u/ quando são pronunciados juntamente com uma outra vogal, numa só emissão de voz.

Observação: Os fonemas /i/ e /u/ podem aparecer representados na escrita por e, o ou m.

Exemplos: – mãe – a letra e tem o som de um i átono, sendo pronunciada juntamente com o a = /m/ã/i/. – mão – a letra o tem o som de um u átono, sendo pronunciada juntamente com o u = /m/ã/u/. – também – a sílaba final é pronunciada com um i:”tambeim”.

3 – Consoante

Fonema produzido graças aos obstáculos que impedem a passagem livre do ar. Exemplos: /b/, /d/, /g/ etc…

Classificação dos Fonemas – Cordas Vocais

Vogais

São fonemas que fazem vibrar as cordas vocais, em cuja produção a corrente de ar vinda dos pulmões não encontra obstáculos.

São doze, e não cinco como muitos imaginam.

São silábicos, isto é, constituem a base da sílaba.

/ a / / ã / / é / / ê / / / / i / / / / ó / / ô / / õ / / u / /

Semivogais

São os fonemas /i/ e /u/ quando formam sílabas com uma vogal.

can-tai 

a =  vogal 

i = semivogal

le-vou

a =  vogal 

i = semivogal

Observação

As letras e e o também podem representar semivogal:

põe = [põi]   mão = [mãu]

Consoantes

São fonemas resultantes de obstáculos encontrados pela corrente de ar vinda dos pulmões. São assilábicos porque não podem formar sílaba sem auxílio de uma vogal.

bo-ca,   ca-sa,  da-do,  fa-ca 

a) VOGAIS

Não são simplesmente as letras a, e, i, o, u. Em quilo, a letra u nem é fonema.

A vogal é fonema básico de toda sílaba. Não há sílaba sem vogal e não pode haver mais de uma vogal numa sílaba. Por outra, o número de vogais de um vocábulo é igual ao número de sílabas; inversamente, o número de sílabas é igual ao número de vogais.

b) CONSOANTES

Como o próprio nome sugere (com + soante = soar com), consoantes são os fonemas que, para serem emitidos, necessitam do amparo de outros fonemas, ou seja, das vogais.

Cabe relembrar que, para haver consoante, é necessário o fonema (ruído) e não a letra (escrita). Assim, em “hipótese”, não há a consoante “h”, mas apenas essa letra; em “ilha”, a consoante única é o fonema representado pelas letras “lh”; em “manga”, o “n” não é consoante, porque não constitui fonema, mas apenas indica a nasalização do “a”.

c) SEMIVOGAIS

Constituem os fonemas intermediários entre as vogais e as consoantes: não têm a fraqueza destas nem a autonomia daquelas.

São, na prática, o “i” e o “u”, quando, ao lado de uma vogal autêntica, soam levemente, sem a força de vogal. O “e” e o “o”, sempre que, na mesma circunstância, forem pronunciados, respectivamente, como “i” e “u”, também serão semivogais.

Comparem-se as diferenças de intensidades dos fonemas grifados, nas palavras que seguem:

Semivogais Vogais
Pais país
Mau baú
Mágoa pessoa
Vídeo Leo
Mário Maria

Observações:

1ª) O a é sempre vogal, aberto ou fechado, oral ou nasal.
2ª)
Qualquer uma das letras a, e, i, o, u, isolada ou entre duas consoantes, será vogal.
3ª)
O fonema que receber o acento tônico será obviamente vogal.
4ª)
Pode haver duas vogais juntas, mas jamais se juntarão duas semivogais.

Fonte: www.graudez.com.br/www.literaturabrasileira.net//listas.cev.org.br

 

 

 

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