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QUESTION 1 You have a hybrid Exchange Server 2016 organization. Some of the mailboxes in the research department are hosted on-premises. Other mailboxes in the research department are stored in Microsoft Office 365. You need to search the mailboxes in the research department for email messages that contain a specific keyword in the message body. What should you do? A. From the Exchange Online Exchange admin center, search the delivery reports. B. Form the on-premises Exchange center, search the delivery reports. C. From the Exchange Online Exchange admin SY0-401 exam center, create a new In-Place eDiscovery & Hold. D. From the Office 365 Compliance Center, create a new Compliance Search. E. From the on-premises Exchange admin center, create a new In-Place eDiscovery & Hold. Correct Answer: E QUESTION 2 You have an Exchange Server 2016 organization. You plan to enable Federated Sharing. You need to create a DNS record to store the Application Identifier (AppID) of the domain for the federated trust. Which type of record should you create? A. A B. CNAME C. SRV D. TXT Correct Answer: D QUESTION 3 Your company has an Exchange Server 2016 200-310 exam Organization. The organization has a four- node database availability group (DAG) that spans two data centers. Each data center is configured as a separate Active Directory site. The data centers connect to each other by using a high-speed WAN link. Each data center connects directly to the Internet and has a scoped Send connector configured. The company's public DNS zone contains one MX record. You need to ensure that if an Internet link becomes unavailable in one data center, email messages destined to external recipients can 400-101 exam be routed through the other data center. What should you do? A. Create an MX record in the internal DNS zone B. B. Clear the Scoped Send Connector check box C. Create a Receive connector in each data center. D. Clear the Proxy through Client Access server check box Correct Answer: AQUESTION 4 Your network contains a single Active Directory forest. The forest contains two sites named Site1 and Site2. You have an Exchange Server 2016 organization. The organization contains two servers in each site. You have a database availability group (DAG) that spans both sites. The file share witness is in Site1. If a power failure occurs at Site1, you plan to mount the databases in Site2. When the power is restored in Site1, you Cisco CCNP Security 300-207 exam SITCS need to prevent the databases from mounting in Site1. What should you do? A. Disable AutoReseed for the DAG. B. Implement an alternate file share witness. C. Configure Datacenter Activation Coordination (DAC) mode. D. Force a rediscovery of the EX200 exam network when the power is restored. Correct Answer: C QUESTION 5 A new company has the following: Two offices that connect to each other by using a low-latency WAN link In each office, a data center that is configured as a separate subnet Five hundred users in each office You plan to deploy Exchange Server 2016 to the network. You need to recommend which Active Directory deployment to use to support the Exchange Server 2016 deployment What is the best recommendation to achieve the goal? A. Deploy two forests that each contains one site and one site link. Deploy two domain controllers to each forest. In each forest configure one domain controller as a global catalog server B. Deploy one forest that contains one site and one site link. Deploy four domain controllers. Configure all of the domain controllers as global catalog servers. C. Deploy one forest that contains two sites and two site links. Deploy two domain controllers to each site in each site, configure one domain controller as a global catalog server D. Deploy one forest that contains two sites and one site link. Deploy two domain controllers to each site. Configure both domain controllers as global catalog servers Correct Answer: C QUESTION 6 How is the IBM Content Template Catalog delivered for installation? A. as an EXE file B. as a ZIP file of XML files C. as a Web Appli cati on Archive file D. as a Portal Application Archive file Correct Answer: D QUESTION 7 Your company has a data center. The data center contains a server that has Exchange Server 2016 and the Mailbox server role installed. Outlook 300-101 exam anywhere clients connect to the Mailbox server by using thename outlook.contoso.com. The company plans to open a second data center and to provision a database availability group (DAG) that spans both data centers. You need to ensure that Outlook Anywhere clients can connect if one of the data centers becomes unavailable. What should you add to DNS? A. one A record B. two TXT records C. two SRV records D. one MX record Correct Answer: A QUESTION 8 You have an Exchange Server 2016 EX300 exam organization. The organization contains a database availability group (DAG). You need to identify the number of transaction logs that are in replay queue. Which cmdlet should you use? A. Test-ServiceHealth B. Test-ReplicationHealth C. Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup D. Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus Correct Answer: D QUESTION 9 All users access their email by using Microsoft Outlook 2013 From Performance Monitor, you discover that the MSExchange Database\I/O Database Reads Average Latency counter displays values that are higher than normal You need to identify the impact of the high counter values on user connections in the Exchange Server organization. What are two client connections 400-051 exam that will meet performance? A. Outlook on the web B. IMAP4 clients C. mobile devices using Exchange ActiveSync D. Outlook in Cached Exchange ModeE. Outlook in Online Mode Correct Answer: CE QUESTION 10 You work for a company named Litware, Inc. that hosts all email in Exchange Online. A user named User1 sends an email message to an Pass CISCO 300-115 exam - test questions external user User 1 discovers that the email message is delayed for two hours before being delivered. The external user sends you the message header of the delayed message You need to identify which host in the message path is responsible for the delivery delay. What should you do? A. Review the contents of the protocol logs. B. Search the message tracking logs. C. Search the delivery reports 200-355 exam for the message D. Review the contents of the application log E. Input the message header to the Exchange Remote Connectivity Analyzer Correct Answer: E QUESTION 11 You have an Exchange Server 2016 organization. The organization contains three Mailbox servers. The servers are configured as shown in the following table You have distribution group named Group1. Group1 contains three members. The members are configured as shown in the following table. You discover that when User1 sends email messages to Group1, all of the messages are delivered to EX02 first. You need to identify why the email messages sent to Group1 are sent to EX02 instead. What should you identify? A. EX02 is configured as an expansion server. B. The arbitration mailbox is hosted 300-320 exam on EX02.C. Site2 has universal group membership caching enabled. D. Site2 is configured as a hub site. Correct Answer: A
Home / Saúde / Quiasma óptico

Quiasma óptico

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O quiasma óptico é uma estrutura em forma de X formada pelo cruzamento dos nervos ópticos no cérebro.

O nervo óptico conecta o cérebro ao olho.

Para os biólogos, o quiasma óptico é considerado um ponto de virada na evolução.

Acredita-se que as fibras nervosas ópticas cruzadas e não cruzadas que percorrem o quiasma óptico se desenvolvem de maneira a auxiliar na visão binocular e na coordenação olho-mão.

O que é

O quiasma óptico é derivado da palavra grega para cruzamento, é o ponto em que os dois nervos ópticos, voltados para trás a partir de cada olho, se cruzam na base do cérebro, formando uma estrutura em forma de x.

Em cada olho, a retina temporal, a metade mais lateral da retina, fornece informações sobre a luz que entra no olho pelo lado nasal, o lado oposto. Pelo contrário, a retina nasal de cada olho fornece informações sobre a luz que entra no olho do mesmo lado do corpo que o olho.

Fibras correndo das células nervosas da retina nasal cruzam-se no quiasma para unir as fibras das células nervosas retinianas temporais do lado oposto. Dessa forma, o cérebro mescla todos os dados relativos ao mesmo lado do corpo, juntos no quiasma óptico, para formar um trato óptico, que viaja do quiasma para os centros visuais do cérebro.

A compressão por um tumor ou a interrupção do fluxo sanguíneo para a área pode danificar o quiasma óptico.

As lesões de massa produzem 95% dos problemas quiasmais, em grande parte devido ao quiasma óptico estar localizado aproximadamente a 10 milímetros acima da glândula pituitária.

Os pacientes com tumores na área quiasmática podem não ter sintomas ou apresentar uma variedade de sintomas, incluindo dores de cabeça, visão dupla e visão reduzida.

Tumores hipofisários, meningiomas, aneurismas, gliomas e esclerose múltipla podem produzir compressão do quiasma óptico.

Além de um exame físico, os médicos também devem realizar exames de tomografia computadorizada de crânio, exames laboratoriais e análises de campo visual para avaliar completamente o paciente.

As lesões no quiasma óptico geralmente produzem defeitos de campo visual característicos ou zonas espaciais com percepção diminuída.

Tumores que produzem compressão generalizada no quiasma mais comumente danificam as fibras nasais que se cruzam no centro do quiasma, que carregam a informação temporal do campo visual.

O paciente com uma lesão quiasmática freqüentemente apresentará hemianopsia bitemporal, com áreas enegrecidas do campo em cada lado lateral.

Um defeito juncional ocorre se o paciente tiver um problema na porção anterior e lateral do quiasma. Esse defeito característico ocorre devido à compressão de um nervo óptico e das fibras nasais opostas, que atravessam e seguem para o quiasma anterior, antes de encurtar o cérebro em direção a uma estrutura em forma de arco chamada joelho de Von Willebrand.

Raramente, a compressão pelas artérias carótidas internas ou pelas artérias cerebrais anteriores irá lesar as fibras laterais de cada lado do quiasma óptico, gerando uma hemianopsia binasal. A angiografia, um exame radiográfico dos vasos sanguíneos usando corante, revelará a fonte dos defeitos.

O tratamento de uma síndrome quiasmal depende da sua etiologia. O manejo adequado pode incluir radioterapia, cirurgia padrão, reposição hormonal ou esteróides sistêmicos. Na maioria dos casos, o prognóstico é ruim.

Em genética, o que é um quiasma?

Um quiasma é um ponto de contato entre as cromátides irmãs que se forma durante a meiose, um processo de divisão e replicação celular usado por uma grande variedade de organismos.

No quiasma, as cromátides podem trocar informações genéticas, resultando em novas combinações de material genético. Quando as cromátides se separam e se tornam cromossomos- irmãos, elas contêm uma mistura diferente de material genético do que seus cromossomos-mãe. Isso permite que os organismos evoluam geneticamente, criando novos traços e passando-os aos descendentes.

As cromátides são unidas no centrômero, um ponto aproximadamente no meio de cada cromátide.

A formação de um quiasma ocorre durante a meiose I, a primeira fase na meiose, quando os cromossomos emparelhados trocam material genético antes de se dividir em duas células, cada uma contendo metade do material genético da célula original. Os quiasmas desempenham um papel importante no processo de replicação do material genético.

Ao essencialmente embaralhar o genoma trocando informações no quiasma, os organismos são capazes de gerar combinações teoricamente infinitas de novas características. Algumas dessas combinações não funcionam, por diversas razões, e não são transmitidas. Outros provam ser bem sucedidos e começarão a se disseminar através da população como resultado. Com o tempo, os organismos podem sofrer grandes mudanças evolucionárias à medida que seus genomas mudam e alguns indivíduos prosperam como resultado de suas características herdadas.

Às vezes, erros durante a divisão podem envolver o quiasma. Se duas cromátides-filhas não conseguirem se separar durante a meiose, o produto dessa divisão específica de divisão celular terá um número ímpar de cromossomos.

A troca de material genético neste ponto também pode se tornar truncada ou confusa, resultando na passagem de traços deletérios ou no fim de algumas células com excesso de material genético, enquanto outras podem estar perdendo pedaços de material genético. Em alguns casos, isso pode ser prejudicial, pois o material em falta ou em excesso pode ser importante e pode se expressar na forma de um defeito genético.

As pessoas podem ver o quiasma com a ajuda da microscopia durante o processo de meiose, quando as cromátides são unidas em uma forma distinta de X.

Essa forma também é replicada em tabelas e gráficos representando a meiose. O termo “quiasma”, que vem do grego, geralmente se refere a um cruzamento ou cruzamento.

Este termo também é usado em anatomia para se referir a feixes de nervos no ponto de intersecção, como o quiasma óptico, onde os nervos ópticos se cruzam.

Anatomia do Quiasma Óptico

No quiasma óptico, as fibras nervosas da metade de cada retina atravessam para o lado oposto do cérebro. As fibras da outra metade da retina viajam para o mesmo lado do cérebro. Por causa dessa junção, cada metade do cérebro recebe sinais visuais dos campos visuais de ambos os olhos.

Doenças do Quiasma Óptico

Existem vários distúrbios que podem afetar o quiasma óptico.

Esses incluem:

Distúrbios inflamatórios, como esclerose múltipla
Infecções como tuberculose
Tumores e cistos benignos (não cancerosos)
Tumores cancerosos
Distúrbios vasculares (vasos sanguíneos)

Fonte: www.verywellhealth.com/neuroscientificallychallenged.com/www.wisegeek.org/www.healthline.com/www.cancer.gov/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

 

 

 

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